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Unit Testing Techniques and Best practices

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1.What's Unit Testing?
Unit testing is a test type in which individual units or software testing functions are performed. Its main objective is to test each unit or function. A unit is an application's smallest test component. It has one or more inputs and generates just one output. A unit referred to as an individual program in procedure programming is used, whereas object-oriented languages offer Base/SuperClass, Abstract Class, and Derived/Child Class. Unit test frames, drivers, stubs and mock /fake objects that are used in testing unit. It works based on the technique of a white box. Testing companies using unit testing are able to
  • Improve Code Quality
  • Create Reusable, Safe and Trustable Code
  • Have Documentation Simplified
  • Allow for Seamless Integration

2.What is the function of the Unit Testing?
Mock objects serve as the foundation for testing. Is it necessary to use mocks while testing functions? Yes, functions cannot be unit tested until mocks are created. Mock objects are used to fill in for missing software components. For example, there may be a function that requires variables or objects that have not yet been created. Mock objects can be generated to test the method. In such cases, fake objects fill in the gaps. Unit Testing Methodologies:

White-Box Testing
It's known as glass box testing or transparent testing. The tester is aware of internal functionality in this form of testing. For this Unit Testing Methodology, the internal structure of a testable object or function is unknown by the Tester.

Black-Box Testing

It is a form of testing in which the tester is unaware of a system's internal operation. The internal structure of the to-be-tested function is unknown.Black Box Testing is fully based on software requirements and standards, and it primarily focuses on the input and output of software applications. This testing methodology is also known as Behavioral Testing.

Grey-Box Testing
It is also called semitransparent testing. The black box and white box tests are combined. These are the sort of Tests performed by Testers not on a deeper level such as white box testing. The user is partly aware of the system's internal operation. The kind of testing covered by a Gray Box Test are the following ones:
RegressionTesting.
Matrix Testing.
PatternTesting.
OrthogonalPattern testing.

3. Unit Testing Benefits
Unit tests show a proper understanding of API unit or code functionality. Test cases may be written for all functions and methods so that a bug is promptly detected and solved if a change produces a failure. In a modular way, a particular functionality or element of the code has been tested without waiting for the completion of other code.

4. Why Unit Testing is Important?
It is a test type which improves test speed. Testing units support the maintenance and update of code. If proper unit test cases are developed and code changes are executed every time, any problem is identified after code changes have occurred. Codes should be reusable, and further unit testing is available in a modular manner. Writing test cases takes time, but the time it takes to carry out the tests can be compensated for this. Unit testing is more dependable and its development will be faster in the long-term.It's easy to debug. Only the newest updates should be debugged if a test fails. Changes over many days/weeks/months need to be scanned or identified with testing at a higher or higher stage. The cost of fixing discovered bugs is lower when compared to higher-level deficiencies. Compare the cost to repair a defect if a problem was found in an Acceptance Testing phase with the same bug.In compared during Acceptance Testing or System Testing, the work needed to fix and repair the faults identified through Unit Testing is reduced.

5. How to implement Unit Testing
Unit test cases are built to do this. Unit test cases are automated, although they are still produced manually. To do Unit Testing using an automated technique, the following stages must be taken into account: To test a function, add another block of code to your program. This portion of code was eventually deleted to test code after an application is finished or in a working state.
Code isolation entails isolating a function in order to test it more thoroughly. Isolate code to improve Automated Unit Testing. Isolating functions/code facilitates effective testing. It aids in revealing dependencies between code functions. Create automated test cases using the Test framework. During test case execution, the framework displays logs for failed test cases. Many frameworks now automatically identify and report failed test cases in summary. Depending on the failure, future testing may be halted.

6. Unit Testing Guidelines
There is no need to write test cases for every possible scenario. Instead, concentrate on tests that have an influence on the whole system's behavior. Before you repair an issue, create a test that exposes the flaws.
  • Create cases to check behavior, as well as test cases to ensure the code's performance.
  • If the bug is not properly stored, it will reoccur.
  • Run test cases on a regular and ongoing basis.
  • Comprehensiveness of test suites should be increased.
  • Before you repair the issue, create test cases.
  • Create test scenarios that are independent of one another. For example, if a class of code is dependent on a database, do not construct a case that interacts with the database to test it. Create an abstract interface around that database connection instead, and then implement an interface with a fake or mock object.
  • The most essential aspect of Unit Testing is to cover all of the pathways; nevertheless, it is also necessary to pay attention to loop conditions.

7. Tools for Unit Testing
Jtest – Parasoft Jtest is an IDE plug-in that uses an open-source framework (JUnit, mockito, PowerMock, and Spring) to develop, scale, and manage unit tests using guided and one-click operations. It focuses on business logic and generates more relevant test suites by automating the time-consuming parts of unit testing.
JUnit - It is a free utility for the Java programming language. It also supports statements for identifying test methods. It is a tool that checks data before inserting it into a piece of code. NUnit - It is used as a testing framework, and this tool is employed for all .Net languages. It is an open-source tool for manually writing scripts. It allows you to conduct data-driven tests in parallel.
JMockit - This is a free and open-source testing tool. It is a tool for determining code coverage. It aids with API mocking via recording and verifying syntax. It's a tool that provides line coverage, path coverage, and data coverage.
EMMA- It is a free and open-source toolset for evaluating and reporting Java code. Method, line, and basic block coverage are all supported by EMMA. It is a Java-based application.
PHPUnit - It is a testing tool for the PHP programming language. It takes little chunks of code known as units and tests each one individually. This testing tool asserts that the system should act in a certain way using pre-defined assertion techniques.

The TestQuality Command Line Interface allows you to upload your automated test results from  NUnitPHPUnitJUnit and Jest to TestQuality. Automated test results must be output in JUnit XML format, which most test automation tools will provide. Test result attachments and related defects are also supported through test name tags or console outputs. 

TestQuality is your one-stop solution for effectively managing all of your testing methods; allowing you to deliver high-quality, bug-free products.



7. Complete Unit Testings
Finally, this testing is only necessary to test each function individually. This kind of testing saves both time and money. If the same bug or issue occurs during Acceptance Testing, the price will be higher than the cost of Unit Testing. When performing testing, it is sometimes necessary to construct mock objects in order to satisfy or fulfill the dependence of a method or function. If a function is reliant on another function and the other function has not yet been generated, the fake function object is utilized.

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If you want your Unit Testing Process to be organized, being able to manage your team test resources or monitor their progress answering three basic questions:
“What tests do we have and who is running them?”
“Do we have appropriate coverage?”
“When are tests being executed and what are the results?”
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